CKA International

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Principles and Values

Humanity

Protect life and promote respect for the human person. Encourage mutual understanding, friendship, cooperation and lasting peace among all the people around me.

Impartiality

In any life-action or decision-making process, we must be impartial, to make sound decisions that do not affect people around us or create bad environments.

Respect

Be a person with high human qualities, belonging and provide equal opportunities for people who work with me.

Discipline

Personal motivation to endure and achieve common goals.

VISION

To be recognized in 2019 be as the most important Traditional Hapkido Organization in America that generates significance to its students and teachers through the study, practice and diffusion of our martial art, contributing to the formation and professionalization of the members of the Federation.

MISSION

To promote the study and practice of traditional Hapkido, contribute to the comprehensive training of students in their social environment, seeking recognition within the world of martial arts at an international level.

History

The history of the Cheong Kyum Hapkido Association (CKA) begins in Seoul, South Korea where a new school (Kwan) was developing. This school was funded in 1975, by Grand Master Lee Seung Woo, and was name Cheong Kyum Kwan that means “clear spirit and modest mind”.

From that moment, the founder Lee Seung Woo has been promoting activities from Cheong Kyum Kwan, traveling to different cities earning recognition of different social groups due to the demonstrations and the relationships created.

In striving for international recognition and the development of the organization the founder Lee appoints master Choi Suk Hwan as Grand Master of Cheong Kyum Kwan. In 2003 Grand Master Choi travels to the city of Ocala in the United States of America, where he performed a seminary of Hapkido hosted by the KHF (Korea Hapkido Federation); it is on this opportunity that Chief Master William Rayo meets with Grand Master Choi Suk Hwan for the first time and makes the decision to join Cheong Kyum Kwan, later on he will initiate the dissemination efforts of Traditional Hapkido by teaching in the name of this school in Colombia and afterwards in America with the help of masters José Antonio Lagier from Argentina and Gabriel Zarate from Ecuador.

Since then, master William Rayo has demonstrated and taught throughout several countries the Hapkido Cheong Kyum Kwan technique helping to restore the path of Hapkido and the official acknowledgment of a respected organization and traditional according to the martial art.

CKA America opened its first school in November, 2004 in Bogotá, Colombia and from there it gave way to an expansion of this martial art in the continent. In 2007 the growth of the organization allows it to go from a simple school to an association with international recognition and the Cheong Kyum Association CKA is born.

As the Cheong Kyum Association grew and taking into account that it was a closed organization with some pre-established formation programs that were only aimed at members, the CKA is contacted by masters from other Kwans (schools) that wished for the organization to admit them and it is for that reason that in 2013 the Cheong Kyum Hapkido World Federation (CKHWF) is created for the development and unification of Hapkido at the international level; nowadays, a fair amount of high technical and human quality Black Belts disseminate and practice the traditional Hapkido program of our organization.

The countries associated to the CKA and the CKWF have the official recognition as affiliated schools and their directive members, masters, teachers and students are recognized and leveled to their respective grades, and are backed up by the international organization; this allows the organization to continue the progress, evolution, development, and spreading of Traditional Hapkido through the Cheong Kyum Hapkido World Federation and the Cheong Kyum Association.

Currently, the headquarters are established in Seoul, South Korea and the director is Grand Master Choi Suk Hwan. The international affairs office is located in Bogotá, Colombia with Chief Master William Rayo as director. The organization has branch offices in Colombia, Venezuela, Singapur, Russia, Malasia, United States, Ecuador, Chile, Argentina, Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic.

Organization

Hapkido Lineage

Founder Yong-Sul Choi (1899 – 1986)

  • Born in Hwang Kan, Choong-Cheong Do.
  • Disciple of ¨MooJeonChongKak WonJeongEui¨ (Takeda Sokaku).
  • Trained ¨DaeDongRyu HapKiYuSool¨ (Daitoryu Aikjujutsu) (1913-1943)
  • 1946 -He returned to Dae Koo, Korea and began the difussion of ¨DaeHa HapKi YuDwonSool¨
  • 1960 -Established the ¨DaeHan HapKiSool MooDoHwoe¨

Grand Master, Han Jae Ji (1936 – )

  • Disciple of Yong Sool Choi
  • 1956 – Opened the “YuKwonSool” dojang in An Dong, Kyeong Sang Do.
  • 1957 – Established for the Hapkido “Seong Moo Kwan” in Seoul.
  • 1984 – Emigrated to USA.

Grand Master, Myeong Yong Kim, (1941 – )

  • Disciple of Han Je Ji.
  • 1958 – Joined the Hapkido “Seong Moo Kwan” in Seoul.
  • 1978 – Emigrated to USA.

CKA Lineage

Founder Seung-Woo Lee

  • Disciple of Myeong-Yong, Kim.
  • 10th dan degree in Hapkido
  • Founder of the Hapkido ¨Cheong Kyum Association¨ (CKA)
  • Founder of the Hapkido ¨Cheong Kyum Kwan¨ (CKK)
  • (pre.) Center Demonstration Team of ¨Sae-ma-uel¨ Hapkido central.
  • 1968 -Began training to Hapkido (under GM, Myung-Yong, Kim)
  • 1974 -Promoted to 4th dan degree (from GM, Han-Jae, Ji)
  • Was appointed ¨Master¨ (from GM, Myung-Yong, Kim)
  • 1975 -Opens a dojang at the Ma-Po, Seoul.
  • 1978 -Completed the qualification of teaching master of Hapkido at the ¨police force¨ and a ¨public institution (from GM, Han-Jae, Ji)¨
  • 1985 -Was appointed teaching master of Hapkido at ¨Sae-ma-uel¨ central association´s trial demonstration team.
  • Participated in various kinds of tournaments, public institutions, and trial performances overseas.
  • 1986 -Had a tour of trial demonstration all over the country of Korea.
  • Had a demonstration to the ¨Public institution¨.
  • Had a demonstration to the Army, Navy and Air Force.
  • Had a demonstration for the ¨National Police Academy¨.
  • Had a special Hapkido demonstration by the invitacion of the president ¨Haeng-Woong, Lee¨ in the American Taekwondo Association (ATA).
  • Had a tour of trial demonstration in the US, Arkansas, Chicago, and so on.
  • Was appointed honorary Ambassador of Arkansas. (at that time, the Governor of the State was William J. Clinton).
  • Obtained a seat on the board of directors in the Korean Amateur Sports Association residing in the midwest of the US.
  • 1988 -Had a demonstration inviting a commander in ¨Gun-san¨ air depot.
  • 2000 -Established the HapKiDo ¨Cheong-Kyum-Kwan¨ in Seoul.
  • 2013 -Participated in the creation and organization of the CKWF

Grand Master Suk-Hwan Choi

  • Disciple of Lee-Seung, Woo.
  • 8th dan degree in Hapkido.
  • Grand Master of Hapkido ¨Cheong Kyum Association¨(CKA).
  • Grand Master of Hapkido ¨Cheong Kyum Kwan¨ (CKK).
  • International Director of The Korea Traditional Hapkido Federation (KTHF).
  • Chief Master of Hapkido Conservation Research Association.
  • (Pre.) International Committee Research Vice director of The Korea Hapkido Federation.
  • (Pre.) Information & Technology Team Director of KHF.
  • (Pre.) Research Committee Master of KHF.
  • (Pre.) Center Demonstration Team of KHF (1993-2000).
  • 1992 -Was awarded for Merit by the KHF.
  • 1993 -Was appointed to The Central Demonstration Team at the KHF.
  • 1994 -Performed a demonstration, at The 2nd Championship Tournament of Hapkido done by the Secretary of Culture & Sports.
  • 1995 -Performed a demonstration, at The 3rd Championship Tournament of Hapkido done by the Secretary of Culture & Sports.
  • 1997 -Performed a demonstration, at The 5th Championship Tournament of Hapkido done by the Secretary of Culture & Sport.   -Performed a demonstration, at The National Intelligence Service (NIS) of the Republic of Korea.
  • Taught Russian Taekwondo Masters in Korea.
  • Performed a demonstration, for a selected team of collegiate Karate martial artist from Japan on a visit to Korea.
  • Performed a demonstration, to a team from Iran visiting Korea.
  • Performed a demonstration & taught a Master course training people in Moscow, Russia.
  • 1998 -Performed demonstration in commemoration, GM, Bong-Soo, Han´s visit to Korea.
  • Taught Taekwondo and Hapkido masters from the USA visiting Korea.
  • Performed a demonstration, at “The first Chung-ju World martial art Festival” in Korea.
  • Performed a demonstration, at the National Intelligence Service (NIS) of the Republic of Korea.
  • 1999 -Performed an interview and demonstration, on the CNN-TV.
  • Performed a demonstration, at “The second Chung-ju World martial art Festival” in Korea”.
  • Performed a demonstration and taught, in SBS TV-Show (Seoul Broadcast System TV) in Korea.
  • Was appointed, Chief Master of Hapkido Conservation Reasearch Association.
  • 2000 -Performed a demonstration, at “The 3rd Chung-ju World martial art Festival” in Korea.
  • Performed a tour of demonstrations, at 4 places in Russia. (Moscow, Voronezh, Lipetsk, Ryazan).
  • Performed a demonstration in commemoration of “East Timmer” and “UN people ” visiting Korea.
  • Performed a demonstration in commemoration of GM, Han-jae, Ji and members of Hapkido from the USA visting Korea.
  • Was appointed Director of IT, (Information Technology) team of the KHF.
  • 2003 -Was appointed Grand Master of the Cheong-Kyum Association.
  • Taught a Hapkido seminar in USA (Apr. Orlando Florida).
  • Taught the President of “Korean martial art federation in Russia” visiting Korea.
  • Taught a Hapkido seminar in the USA (Apr. Orlando Florida).
  • 2004 -Performed a demonstration at the WCO (World Culture Open).
  • Performed a demonstration, titled ”Against terrorism and VIP guard” at the Ministry of Nation Defense in Korea.
  • Performed a Seminar of Hapkido at the CKA’s 1st Kyo-Sa Course Seminar in Korea (May, Seoul).
  • Performed a Seminar of Hapkido at the CKA’s 2nd Kyo-Sa Course Seminar in Korea (Oct, Seoul).
  • Performed a Seminar of Hapkido at the CKA’s 3rd Kyo-Sa Course Seminar in Colombia (Nov, Bogota).
  • Performed a Seminar of Hapkido at the CKA’s Normal Course Seminar in Colombia (Nov, Cali & Bogota).
  • 2005 -Was appointed Vice-Director of the KFH International Committee.
  • Taught a seminar about Hapkido CKA’s 1st Master Course Seminar in Korea (Mar, Seoul).
  • Taught a seminar about Hapkido CKA’s 4th Normal & Kyo-Sa Course Seminar in USA (Apr, Orlando Florida).
  • Taught a seminar about Hapkido CKA’s 2nd Master Course Seminar in Korea (Jun, Seoul).
  • Taught to Mongolian S.W.A.T. (Special Weapons Attack Team) in Mongol (Jun, Ulabbatar).
  • Performed a demonstration, “8 corps US Army¨ in Korea.
  • Performed a demonstration, about “”Against terrorism and VIP guard” at the Ministry of Nation Defense in Korea.
  • Performed a demonstration & taught in Singapore.
  • Performed a Seminar of Hapkido at the CKA’s 4th Normal & Kyo-Sa Course Seminar in Colombia (Nov, Bogota).
  • 2006 -Was appointed director of the Korea Traditional Hapkido Federation International.
  • Taught a master education course KTHF to Singapore Master and Members in Korea (Aug, Seoul).
  • Performed a Seminar of Hapkido at the CKA’s 3rd Master Course Seminar in Colombia (Oct, Bogota).
  • Performed a Seminar of Hapkido at the CKA’s 3rd Kyo-Sa & Normal Course Seminar in Colombia (Nov, Bogota, Cali).
  • Performed a demonstration at the “International Martial art Festival” in Colombia (Nov, Bogota).
  • 2007 -Attended the inauguration of the “”Cheong Kyum Association” (CKA).
  • 2013 -Participated in the creation and organization of the CKWF

Chief Master William Rayo

Born: June 2, 1969, Bogota, Colombia
1976
• Starts Tae Kwon Do Study and Practice
1980
• Starts Shaolin Kung Fu Study
1982
• Starts the Olympic and Greco-Roman Fighting Practice
1984
• Integrates the State team of Santander of Free style wrestling to participate in
the National Games that year.
• Starts the practice of Karate Kempo and Ninjutsu Under the instruction of
Master José Antonio Sepulveda,
• Participates in his first National Championship, obtaining third place.
1986
• Begins the practice of Hap Ki Do under the instruction of Master José Pulido
1990
• Obtains the 1st Dan degree awarded by Master Chang Li and Master José
Pulido
• Participates in an open international martial arts championship in New York.
1991
• Establishes the YIN LUNG School of KUNG FU and HAPKIDO
• Starts his studies of Full Contact, participating in several national events.
1992
• Obtains the 2nd degree Dan in Hap Ki Do awarded by Master José Pulido
1994
• Graduates as Systems Engineer
• Grants the 1st DAN degree for the first time to one of his students.
1996
• Continues Hapkido practice under the instruction of Chang Nam Kal Master at
Dae Yong Moo Kwan School

1998
• Obtains the 3rd DAN degree awarded by Master Chang Nam Kal
1999
• Moves to Barranquilla where he starts his first group in the Colombian Atlantic
Coast region.
• Acts as personal defense instructor for elite groups of the Colombian Army
and Air Force.
2000
• Moves back again to the city of Bogota where he currently resides.
• Starts the study and practice of Wing Chun under the instruction of Sifu Jairo
Orjuela.
• Travels to the United States and attends special classes for Black belts in the
International Hapkido Federation taught by the Grand Master Bong So Han
2002
• Teaches Hapkido to elite personnel of the Army, the Colombian Air Force and
the Colombian National Police in personal defense.
• Starts the study and specialization in the management of kali and self-defense
under the instruction of the Master Roberto Arango
• Begins the practice of Sin Moo Hapkido, under the instruction of Dojunim Ji
Han Jae.
2003
• Attendeds the international seminar of Sin Moo Hapkido with DOJU NI JI HAN
JAE
• Specializes in total management of quality and productivity
• His degrees are recognized by the Korean Hapkido Federation and the
National Hapkido Association
• Attends the international seminar of Masters in the United States of America
organized by Grand Master Richard Hackworth, attended by a large number of
participants led by KHF President GREAT MASTER OH SE LIM
• Presents and approves the 4th DAN test required by the Korean Hapkido
Federation which was evaluated by the KHF examination committee.
This committee was composed of:
O Oh Se Lim, KHF President.
The Sung Book Bae, KHF National Director
In Gil Chae, Cpt, Seoul City Police
Hyung Sang Kim, Director Special Committees
O Suk Hwan Choi, IT Team Director
• Is appointed as Director of the Demonstration Team for Colombia
2004
• He is officially appointed as Director of the Korean Hapkido Federation for
Colombia.
• Implements three international CKA headquarters CKA in America; Colombia,
Argentina and Ecuador
• Is appointed officially as Director of Cheong Kyum Kwan for Colombia
• Attends the KYOSA course taught by Grand Master Choi Suk Hwan in Bogota
Colombia.

2005
• Receives the KHF Master's degree in thirteenth version of the Master training
course conducted by KOREAN HAPKIDO FEDERATION.
• Conducted the first Cheong Kyum Kwan Master training course in Jamsil-
Seoul, South Korea.
2006
• Acts as organizer of the First International Martial Arts Festival Cheong Kyum
Kwan Colombia held in the Portal 80 Mall in the city of Bogotá.
• Conducts the second course of Masters of Cheong Kyum Kwan in Bogota
Colombia taught by Grand Master Choi Suk Hwan
• Obtains the official title of Cheong Kyum Association Master
• Obtains the Master 5 DAN title from the KTHF Korea Traditional Hapkido
Federation.
• Expands CKA to Venezuela, Chile and Costa Rica.
2008
• Attends the first course for Chief of Masters taught by Grand Master Choi Suk
Hwan in the city of Bogota
• Acts as organizer of the second International Martial Arts Festival Cheong
Kyum Kwan Colombia held at Hayuelos Mall in the city of Bogota.
2009
• Attends the second and third course for Head of Masters taught by GM Choi
Suk Hwan in the city of Seoul South Korea
• Obtains the title of CKA Master of Masters.
• Obtains the title of Director of CKA Colombia for the third time
• Organizes and instructs the 1st Technical Training Course for Masters in the
city of Santiago – Chile.
2010
• Acts as organizer of the third International Martial Arts Festival Cheong Kyum
Hwan Colombia held at Salitre Plaza Mall in the city of Bogotá.
• Obtains the title of Director of CKA for Central and South America
• He is appointed as Head of Masters of CKA Becoming the first Latin American
Master with this degree.
• Organizes and teaches the second Technical Training Course for Masters in
the city of Bogotá D.C – Colombia

2011
• Obtains the title of Director of CKA of Central and South America
• Organizes and instructs the thirrd Technical Training Course for Masters in the
city of Santiago – Chile
• Leads the expansion of the CKA in Boston, United States of America.
2012
• Attends his first Grand Master's course taught by GM Choi Suk Hwan in Seoul
South Korea.

• Presents and approves the test for the 6th DAN of the Cheong Kyum
Association in the city of Seoul – South Korea
• Organizes and gives instruction at the First Pan American Conference of
Hapkido CkA in the city of Bogotá D.C. – Colombia
• Expansion of the CKA in the Dominican Republic.
2013
• Receives the title for the second time as Director of CKA of Central America
and South America.
• Conducts the technical level grading course taught by GM Choi Suk Hwan in
the city of Bogota D.C. – Colombia
• Organizes and gives instruction at the Second Pan-American Conference of
Hapkido CKA in the city of Buenos Aires – Argentina.
2014
• Obtains the title of Director of CKA for the second time at an international
level.
• Conducts the technical level grading course taught by GM Choi Suk Hwan in
the city of Seoul – South Korea.
• Organizes and teaches at the Third Pan-American Conference of Hapkido
CKA in the city of Bogota – Colombia
• Attends the Number one Grandmaster Professional Course taught by GM
Choi Suk Hwan in the city of Seoul – South Korea.
• Organizes and gives instruction at the Third Pan American Conference of
Hapkido CKA in Bogotá – Colombia.
2015
• Organizes and gives instruction at the First International Seminar of Hapkido
CKA in the city of San Cristobal – Venezuela
• Organizes and gives instruction at the First International Seminar of Hapkido
CKA in the city of San José – Costa Rica
• Provides basic Hapkido instruction in Toronto – Canada at Hapkido Toronto.
2016
• Attends the Professional Course Number 2 and 3 of Grand Master taught by
the GM Choi Suk Hwan in the city of Seoul – South Korea.
• Presents and approves the examination for the 7th DAN of the Cheong Kyum
Association in the city of Seoul – South Korea
• Instructs the Hapkido CKA Level 1 International Seminar in the city of
Hamburg – Germany, Organized by the Tukon Academy
• CKA Normandia is opened in the city of San Jose, Costa Rica and teaches the
first 12 Technical Courses for color grades to level the students of that school.
• Organizes and gives instruction at the Second International Seminar of
Hapkido CKA in the city of San Jose – Costa Rica
• Receives the title of CKA Director of Central and South America for the third
time.
• Obtains the title of the International Director of CKWF for the first time.
• Retires as Colonel of the Colombian Air Force.
• Produces First Technical DVD of Hapkido CKA

2017
• Conducts the First Technical Leveling Course for Second DAN of CKA.
 Acts as organizer of the third International Martial Arts Festival Cheong Kyum
Hwan Colombia held at Salitre Plaza Mall in the city of Bogotá.
 Participated in the Hapkido World Championship in Monterrey – Mexico,
were get the second place in Demo team and weapons.
 Organizes and gives instruction at the Second International Seminar of
Hapkido CKA in the city of Bogotá – Colombia
 Organizes and gives instruction at the Third International Seminar of Hapkido
CKA in the city of San Jose – Costa Rica
 Organizes and gives instruction at the Second International Seminar of
Hapkido CKA in the city of Buenos Aires – Argentina

Chief Masters

Chief Master Dong-Woo, Seo

Chief Master Jang-Hyun, Kim

Chief Master William Rayo

Chief Master Yong-Jik, Kim

Chief Master Ryan Nowack

Chief Master Edgar Correa

【Level Positions of CKWF & CKA】

1. “JO-KYO (조교) – “ASSISTANT PROFESSOR”.
– Complete to “Standard” course seminar.
– 1st Dan Black Belt of CKWF.

2. “KYO-SA” (교사) – “INSTRUCTOR”.
– Complete to “Kyo-Sa” course seminar.
– 2nd Dan Black Belt of CKWF.

3. “BOO-SA-BEOM” (부사범) – “VICE-MASTER”.
– Complete to “Kyo-Sa” course seminar.
– 3rd Dan Black Belt of CKWF.

4. “SA-BEOM” (사범) – “MASTER”.
– Complete to “Master” course seminar.
– Complete to “Training Course” seminar.
– Pass to the “Master course” test.
–  4th -5th Dan Black Belt of CKWF.

5. “SOO-SEOK-SA-BEOM” (수석사범) – “CHIEF MASTER”.
– Complete to “Chief Master” course seminar.
– Pass to the “Chief Master course” test.
– 6th Dan Black Belt of CKWF.

6. “KWAN-JANG” (관장) – “GRAND MASTER”.
– Complete to “Grand Master” course seminar.
– Pass to the “Grand Master course” test.
– 7th~ Dan Black Belt of CKWF.

7. “BON-KWAN-JANG” (본관장) – “CHIEF GRAND MASTER”.
– Complete to “Grand Master” course seminar.
– Pass to the “Chief Grand Master course” test.
–  8th~ Dan Black Belt of CKA.

8. “CHONG-KWAN-JANG” (총관장) – “GENERAL GRAND MASTER”.

9. “CHONG-JAE” (총재)- “FOUNDER”.

Emblem

It is about the eight signs of adivination that represent the universe (nature).

It stands as one of the dynamic principles of Hapkido, the ¨circle¨ and the centrifugal force.

They represent the principle of the ¨square¨, one of the dynamic principles of Hapkido, it is used to destroy the equilibrium of the oponents when attacking and defending. They represent centrifugal force.

This is the principle of the ¨triangle¨ one of the dynamic principles of Hapkido, it represents the point of attack and the power of concentracion of the direction of the atack, which means the body of concentration.

This is the principle of ¨harmony¨, one of the physical principles in Hapkido, the harmony of the circle and flow that represent the harmony of the energy Ki with an opponent.

It is about the principle of the ¨circle¨, one of the physical principles in Hapkido, shows the movement and the attributes of the sphere, that represent the continuity of the breathing and the centrifugal force of the energy Ki.

It is about the principle of ¨flow¨, one of the physical principles of Hapkido, that is related to the operation with the dynamic principles of physics, it means the transfer of energy en the flow of energy Ki.

It is the ¨negative¨ principle in Ki energy, one of the principles of negative energy and positive energy in nature that represent the balance of absorption of the oponents of the body, the breathing and the thought when the rival touches us.

This is the principle of ¨harmony¨, one of the physical principles in Hapkido, the harmony of the circle and flow that represent the harmony of the energy Ki with an opponent.

It represents what is clear and honest. It also represents the ¨Dojang (Academy)¨ which is the base of the education in Hapkido.

This is the nobility, the depth, the dignity, and the large personaliy that represent the dobok in every person in the formation at the Cheong Kyum Association.

It signifies modesty and humility. Represented by the ¨dobok¨ (training uniform) of a student over the level of his/her instructor.

The spirit that a person must have as a student of Hapkido, it means ¨clear spirit¨.

Is the mindset that a person must have in order to practice Hapkido, it means ¨humble mind¨.

This is the association of Hapkido into which a person enters, it means ¨organization¨, based in the clear spirit and the modest mind.

Emblem of the CKWF

EMBLEM OF CKWF – CHEONG KYUM HAPKIDO WORLD FEDERATION
This logo was designed by the masters of Cheong Kyum Association, when the organization became a Federation.

1.Circle of outside Red: the circle is boundless. The lack of boundaries show power and life while also meaning origin.
2.Use of white and black: It means dichotomy, the negative and the positive, what is strong and soft, also existence and nothingness which grow jointed through the same root displaying the movement of the universal motion.
3.Colors of the inside circle: Green means Clear Spirit, while Orange means Modest Mind and Blue means strong Dojang
4.The world map: It stands for the globalization of Hapkido CKA that spreads through the world.

Where does the meaning of “Hapkido Chong Kyum Hwoe Se Kye Ion Meng (Cheong Kyum Hapkido World Federation)” came from?

“Cheong Kyum Hapkido World Federation” is the name in English of “Hapkido Chong Kyum Hwoe Se Kye Ion Meng” and it means the Modest mind and the Clear spirit World Federation. Here “Hwoe” is translated into “Federation” instead of “Association”. In the past, people were not interested in the English translation. The organization is aware that the closest translation to “Hwoe” is “Association” and we must admit that it is normally translated as such. However, the Board of Directors adopted the name “Federation” and registered that name for the international organization.